Manuscripts should be written in concise and correct English, and at a level that will be accessible to the broad readership of the journal.
A cover letter is required to introduce the main finding and outline the level of interest to and beyond the field. The corresponding author is asked to sign on the letter. Email address, telephone and fax numbers must be present.
The main text should be organized in the following order:
- Title page
- Materials and methods
- Conflict of interest
- Figure legends
The details are listed as below, together with the general instructions for Figures and Supplementary data.
The title should occupy no more than 100 characters. Serial titles are not allowed. The title should be short and informative, and should not contain unconventional abbreviations. A running title of less than 50 characters is necessary to convey the significance of the paper. The key words (less than 7) should also be listed. Authors’ full names and affiliations must be provided in an informative format. It is important to indicate a corresponding author, together with the email address, telephone and fax numbers.
Each author must have contributed substantively to justify inclusion as an author; any other contributors should instead be acknowledged appropriately in the Acknowledgments section. The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that all authors have made bona fide, substantive contributions to the research and have seen and approved the manuscript in final form prior to submission.
This part consists of a single paragraph not exceeding 200 words. In particular, the Abstract should summarize the background of the research, novel finding of the paper and the importance of the results as briefly as possible. It should convey clearly and completely the significance and advance of the work to the readership before they have read the paper. Abbreviations and reference citation should generally be avoided.
The introduction should provide the necessary background information with succinct words to give a proper perspective for the study. Only the necessary background information should be provided, instead of a detailed review of the field. Previous publications that provided the groundwork for the paper submitted must be mentioned. All symbols and abbreviations used must be defined, unless they are common abbreviations, symbols of chemical elements or standard units of measurements. Subheadings are not used in this section.
This section could be subdivided with subheadings to give the manuscript more clarity. Concise and precise description should be used to present to a wide readership. Footnotes and sidenotes are not allowed in this section. Up to 8 figures and/or tables may be contained in an article.
The Discussion may be subdivided or combined as appropriate. The Discussion should not repeat the Results, instead, more implications of the results and relevant information should be explored to bring the results into a broader context.
Materials and methods
This section must be described with sufficient details so that others could repeat the procedures, in conjunction with cited references. Procedures such as appropriate experimental design and statistical methods should be described. Methods for quantification of levels or differences in levels of molecules in biological samples must be described fully and shown to be quantitative and reproducible, using appropriate replicates and statistical analyses. Additional information could be included as Supplementary data if necessary. If there is any novel material, the authors are required to make it available for non-commercial research purposes.
These may be used to list the contributions of non-authors, funding sources and financial supports. Personal acknowledgements should precede their institutions or agencies. The Acknowledgements section should be listed at the end of the text, before the References.
Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear after the 'Acknowledgements' section.
The following rules should be followed:
- The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
- The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH’
- Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘(grant number ABX CDXXXXXX)’
- Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘(grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX)’
- Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
- Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to (author initials)'.
An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.) and the Alcohol & Education Research Council (HFY GR667789).‘
Conflict of interest
Potential conflicts of interest exist when an author or reviewer has financial or personal interests in a publication that might, in principle, influence their scientific judgment. Financial interests include, but are not limited to, stock-holding, consultancy, paid expert testimony and honoraria; they also include any limitations on freedom to publish that are imposed on an author by an employer or funding agency. In order to encourage transparency without impeding publication, authors are required to include a statement at the end of a manuscript that lists all potential financial interests or, if appropriate, that clearly states that there are none. Possible conflicts of interest of a personal nature should also be communicated to the editorial office( firstname.lastname@example.org), who will discuss with the author whether these ought to be listed. Peer reviewers are also required to inform the editorial office ( email@example.com) of any potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.
References should include only articles that are published or in press. Unpublished data, submitted manuscripts, abstracts, and personal communications should be cited within the text only. Personal communication should be documented by a letter of permission. Submitted articles should be cited as unpublished data, data not shown or personal communication. Note: "et al." should only be used after 3 authors. Please use the following style for references:
Article in a periodical:
Chu, Y., Yao, P. Y., Wang, W., et al. (2011). Aurora B kinase activation requires survivin priming phosphorylation by PLK1. J. Mol. Cell Biol. 3, 260-267.
Article in a book:
Pyle, A.M., and Lambowitz, A.M. (2006). Group II introns: ribozymes that splice RNA and invade DNA. In: Gesteland, R.F., Cech, T.R., and Atkins, J.F. (eds). The RNA World, 3rd edn. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 469–506.
An entire book:
Gesteland, R.F., Cech, T.R., and Atkins, J.F. (2006). The RNA World, 3rd edn. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
When creating a table, please use the Microsoft Word table function in a Word document. Word tables should not be tab or space delineated and should not use color. Tables should include a title, footnotes and/or concise legend. Tables in the submitted manuscript should be a separate section. Tables not created using the Microsoft Word table function will need to be revised by the author.
This is an independent section in the submitted manuscript. A brief title describing the entire figure must be included in each figure legend. Each panel should be described exactly in this section. The information in the text, especially the experimental details, should not be repeated in Figure legends. Bars, sample sizes and scales must be indicated clearly in Figure legends. Figure numbers should be given in Arabic numerals and figure parts in upper case letters (1A, 1B…).
All the Figures (line drawings, histograms and photographs) must be labeled in consecutive Arabic numerals, and must be referred to in the text (as Figure 1, Figure 2…). For figures with multiple panels, the labels should be set in upper case letters such as Figure 1A, Figure 1B.
For initial online submission, images could be submitted in one of the following formats: JPEG (.jpg), TIEF (.tif), Portable Document File (.pdf) or Encapsulated Postscript (.eps). These images should be placed after the References section.
Figures should be submitted in their desired final size to fit the width of the text. Please keep file size as small as possible. The minimum resolution for the figures is 300 dpi (dots per inch) for tone or color, 1200 dpi for line art at approximately the correct size for publication. Large file sizes (30 MB or greater) may occasionally be needed, but should be avoided if possible. Any lettering should be approximately in proportion to the overall dimensions of the figure. We can only accept one file per figure, so please do not submit separate panels on several pages. Micrographs should be provided with a scale bar.
All color images must be submitted in CMYK (Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black) color mode. The authors are responsible for ensuring that all figures correctly appear in black and white or in color.
More details can be found at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/for_authors/figures.html.
Data that are integral to the manuscript but impractical to include in the printed journal may be presented as Supplementary data. We encourage authors to include all necessary data in the manuscript body. If large data sets or videos are necessary and cannot be accommodated in the text body, supplementary data can be submitted. However, each supplementary file must be less than 5 MB.
Supplementary data should be submitted with the original manuscripts. They will be linked to the online article published on the journal’s website. All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats in this section. All the figures and tables should have titles and legends just as what should be done in the original article.
Authors are responsible for ensuring that all the supplementary materials are correct and complete, as these files will not undergo further editing and proof before published online.